La Divina Commedia PDF ✓ La Divina PDF or

La Divina Commedia [Reading] ➶ La Divina Commedia ➬ Dante Alighieri – Безконечното пътуване на душевното естество из видимото и невидимото на човешката мисъл и съзнание – символ Безконечното пътуване на душевното естество из видимото и невидимото на човешката мисъл и съзнание – символ на съзерцателното търсене на земната мъдрост която винаги е у човека а не извън него А себепознанието е водещ мотив в стремежа към надмогване на слабостта и спасение от греховете Човек самопречистващ се от страданието оставя злото в миналото и освобождава духа си от него – път към постигане на божественото в човешката душа Мъдростта изисква знание и любов към него Своята „Свещена поема“ Данте Алигиери пише La Divina PDF or през последните години от живота си – Това е творбата изчерпила всички сили на твореца и превърнала се в безсмъртен литературен шедьовър.

About the Author: Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri or simply Dante May June – September is one of the greatest poets in the Italian language; with the comic story teller Boccaccio and the poet Petrarch he forms the classic trio of Italian authors Dante Alighieri was born in the city state Florence in He first saw the woman or rather the child who was to become the poetic love of his life when he.

10 thoughts on “La Divina Commedia

  1. Manny Manny says:

    You can recognize a small truth because its opposite is a falsehood The opposite of a great truth is another truth Niels BohrI was thinking about Dante the other day and wondering how one could approach him from the angle of a GoodReads review One of the obvious problems is that he lived a long time ago and many of the cultural referents have changed You're constantly having to think Well nowadays what he's saying would correspond to THAT It isn't so bad in Hell when there is plenty of entertainment to be had in seeing how the different sins are punished and indulging your schadenfreude Then Purgatory tells a moral story that's or less timeless if you go for that sort of thing but once you arrive in Paradise it starts getting seriously tricky A lot of the stuff at first sight just seems irrelevant to the 21st century world all these explanations about the mechanics of Ptolomaic astronomy and Dante uerying the inhabitants of Heaven on obscure theological points It's notorious that readers most often give up somewhere in the third book I started wondering if there was any modern day author one could identify with Dante and if that might help us connect to his concerns And in fact I do have a suggestion that some people will no doubt condemn out of hand as completely heretical Richard Dawkins Now of course I am aware that Dante was deeply immersed in the Christian world view and Dawkins is famous for being the world's most outspoken atheist But it's not uite as crazy as it first may seem Dante was a Christian to the core of his being but he was furious with the way the Church was being run; he put several of its leaders notably Pope Boniface VIII in Hell On the other side I challenge anyone to read The Ancestor's Tale to the end and not at least for a moment entertain the idea that Dawkins is in actual fact a deeply religious man He admits as much himself as he puts it it's often not so much that he disagrees with conventionally religious people that they are saying it wrong Amen to thatAs noted both Dante and Dawkins are extremely unhappy with the way mainstream religion is being organized The other characteristic that unites them for me is this passionate love for science One has to remember that for Dante Ptolomaic astronomy was state of the art stuff and the details of the angelic hierarchy were a topic of vital importance; of course he cross examines the hosts of the blessed to find out These days I imagine he would be trying to get inside information on what happened during the Big Bang before spontaneous symmetry breaking occurred whether or not the Higgs particle really exists and how evolution produced human intelligence For Dante there didn't seem to be any opposition between religious faith and science they were part of the same thing I do wonder what he would have thought if he had been able to learn that many leading religious figures even in the early 21st century reject a large part of science as being somehow unreligious It's wrong to spend your life dispassionately trying to understand God's Universe? I can see him getting uite angry about this and deciding to rearrange the seating a little down in HellI keep thinking that there's a book someone ought to write called Five Atheists You'll Meet in Heaven Please let me know when it comes out; I'll buy a copy at oncePS I couldn't help wondering what Paradise might have looked like if Dante had been writing today Obviously we wouldn't have the old geocentric model of the Universe it would be bang up to date I think there is now far material for an ambitious poet to work with than there was in the 14th century For example when we get to the Heaven of the Galaxy I imagine him using this wonderful fact that all the heavy elements are made in supernova explosions We are all stardust as some people like to put it Then when we get to the Heaven of the Cosmos we find that the light from the Let there be light moment at the beginning of Creation is still around it's just cooled to 27 degrees K and appears as the cosmic background radiation But it's not completely uniform as the uantum fluctuations left over from the period when the Universe was the size of an atomic nucleus are the beginnings of the galaxies created on the second day Finally we reach the Heaven of the Multiverse and find that we are just one of many different universes It was necessary to create all of them so that random processes could make sure that a very small number would end up being able to support life How impious to assume that God would only be able to create one Universe and have to tweak all the constants Himself

  2. Lisa Lisa says:

    I once thought I'd write an essay on how long it takes a serious author of fiction or nonfiction before he or she inevitably uotes Dante If I were to write a novel myself this is a hypothetical grammatical construction I'd probably manage about a page before I'd exclaim that I am lost and middle aged and in the middle of a dark forest I'd try to kill off annoying acuaintances and punish them severely for their lack of admiration for me and my creativity not to mention my sarcasm and irony and of course I would meet my teenage love and be joined together forever in eternal happiness in the end or maybe not come to think of it I might skip that part after spending a life travelling the underworld in the company of the most brilliant author I can think of Dante fulfilled all his and my dreams with the Divina Commedia and I envy him his bravery and talent not to mention his ability to write in that beautiful Italian However not all parts of the poem were eually appealing to meI found myself loving Inferno liking Purgatorio and not uite identifying with Paradiso at allI always wondered why that is and concluded that humans are much better at depicting hell than heaven chaos than order dystopia than utopia Reason being in my not very important opinion there's no storyline behind real bliss and without stories we are not entirely connected to humanity and its uestions any Paradiso is nice but uninteresting sort ofLasciate ogni speranza voi che entrate the ticket to hell I doubt if there ever was a better advertisement for a rollercoaster adventureUpdate in Year One Of Post Truth Wall BuildingI am still lost in that dark forest of middle age trying to make sense of life and Dante comes to mind and often in the same way Orwell's 1984 does it grows realistic with every day that passes This morning The Wall Of Dis all of a sudden forced itself upon my thoughts the great wall separating Dante's Upper and Lower Hell Upper Hell is for the Carnal Gluttonous Greedy and Wrathful whereas the other side of the wall contains the Heretical Violent Fraudulent and Treacherous It just struck me that every wall in the world has created that kind of mental division The typical representatives of upper hell consumed by the everyday sins of wanting most of everything for themselves without being bothered by others usually keep their moral upper hand by accusing the other side of the wall of worse crimes such as the wrong religion violence and treasonThe funny or sad thing is that it works both ways You can turn hell upside down and have the same results egotistical narcissistic angry men accuse others of treason and heresy to deflect from their own faults No wonder Inferno is a timeless classic after all Dante based it on his own experience of a divisive violent political situation

  3. Ahmad Sharabiani Ahmad Sharabiani says:

    Divina Commedia Divine Comedy La Divina Commedia #1 3 Dante AlighieriThe Divine Comedy is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri begun c 1308 and completed in 1320 a year before his death in 1321 It is widely considered the preeminent work in Italian literature and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century It helped establish the Tuscan language in which it is written as the standardized Italian language It is divided into three parts Inferno Purgatorio and ParadisoInferno The poem begins on the night before Good Friday in 1300 halfway along our life's path Dante lost in a dark wood he cannot evade and unable to find the straight way – also translatable as right way – to salvation Conscious that he is ruining himself and that he is falling into a low place basso loco where the sun is silent Dante is at last rescued by Virgil and the two of them begin their journey to the underworld they had their faces twisted toward their haunchesand found it necessary to walk backwardbecause they could not see ahead of them and since he wanted so to see aheadhe looks behind and walks a backward pathPurgatorio Having survived the depths of Hell Dante and Virgil ascend out of the under gloom to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of the world The Mountain is on an island the only land in the Southern Hemisphere created by the displacement of rock which resulted when Satan's fall created Hell The mountain has seven terraces corresponding to the seven deadly sins or seven roots of sinfulness The classification of sin here is psychological than that of the Inferno being based on motives rather than actions It is also drawn primarily from Christian theology rather than from classical sources However Dante's illustrative examples of sin and virtue draw on classical sources as well as on the Bible and on contemporary events Paradiso After an initial ascension Beatrice guides Dante through the nine celestial spheres of Heaven These are concentric and spherical as in Aristotelian and Ptolemaic cosmology While the structures of the Inferno and Purgatorio were based on different classifications of sin the structure of the Paradiso is based on the four cardinal virtues and the three theological virtuesThe seven lowest spheres of Heaven deal solely with the cardinal virtues of Prudence Fortitude Justice and Temperance The first three spheres involve a deficiency of one of the cardinal virtues – the Moon containing the inconstant whose vows to God waned as the moon and thus lack fortitude; Mercury containing the ambitious who were virtuous for glory and thus lacked justice; and Venus containing the lovers whose love was directed towards another than God and thus lacked Temperanceتاریخ نخستین خوانش ماه جولای سال 1976میلادیعنوان کمدی الهی در سه جلد دوزخ برزخ بهشت؛ سروده دانته آلیگری؛ مترجم شجاع الدین شفا؛ تهران، امیرکبیر، 1335؛ موضوع اشعار شاعران ایتالیایی سده 14مالبته که ترجمه های دیگران از نامداران و مترجمان این اثر کم بدیل جداگانه معرفی شده اندسرود اول بهشت جلال ِ آنکس که گرداننده ی همه چیز است، سرتاسر جهان آفرینش را، به فرمان خویش دارد؛ ولی در اینجا آسمان بیشتر، و در جاهای دیگر کمتر متجلی است؛ بدان آسمانی رفتم، که بیش از هر آسمان دگر، از فروغ او بهره مند است، و چیزهایی را دیدم، که آنکس که از آن بالا فرود آمده باشد، نه میداند، و نه میتواند بازگفت؛ زیرا که حس ادراک ما، با نزدیکی به مایه ی اشتیاق خود، چنان مجذوب میشود، که حافظه ی ما را، یارای همراهی با آن نمیماند؛ با این همه، آنچه را که از قلمرو مقدس بهشت در گنجینه ی اندیشه، جای توانسته ام داد، اکنون مایه ی این سرود خویش میکنم، و بازش میگویم؛ ای «آپولوی» نیک نهاد، برای این سهم آخرین، مرا آن اندازه، از نبوغ خویش عطا کن، که برای سپردن تاج افتخار محبوب خود به کسان، از آنان طلب میکنی؛ پایان نقل از ترجمه رونشاد شجاع الدین شفامیاندیشم این رویاها را، شاید در خیال خواب خویش، همگان نیز دیده باشیم، «دانته» نیز دیده است؛ این منظومه ی بلند، دارای سه بخش «دوزخ»، «برزخ» و «بهشت» است، و هر بخشی سی ‌و سه چکامه کانتو دارد، که با مقدمه، در کل شامل یکصد چکامه می‌شود؛ «دانته» برای این اثر از قافیه ‌پردازی نوی، که به «قافیه ی سوم» مشهور شد، سود جستند؛ هر چکامه، به بندهای «سه بیتی» تقسیم می‌شود، که بیت اول و سوم، هم قافیه هستند، و بیت میانی، با بیت اول و سوم بند بعدی، دارای قافیه جداگانه ‌است؛ مبنای وزن هر بیت، یازده هجایی است؛ مجموع ابیات کمدی الهی به دوازده هزار و دویست و سی و سه بیت می‌رسد؛ زبان این اثر گویش ایالت «توسکانا» در «ایتالیا»ی آن روزگاران است تاریخ بهنگام رسانی 26061399هجری خورشیدی؛ ا شربیانی

  4. Manny Manny says:

    I attempt to rewrite the Divine ComedyIn the middle of the journey of my lifeI came across a man named TrumpWho seemed bent on causing much strifeO how he was an unpleasant fleshy lumpLike some hobgoblin of the child's imaginationOr a thing that in the night goes bumpBut in spite of lengthy cogitationI find I have produced fewer words Than members of the crowd at an inaugurationI've doubtless disappointed the Dante nerdsAnd before long may well concede defeatMy plan I admit was strictly for the birdsAlas Success will not these efforts greetI am totally running out of steamAnd will soon be mocked by some misspelled tweetI had despaired Then last night in a dreamI heard a voice say Manny just have some funGo on I tell you it'll be a screamMaster I said I think I'm not the oneFear not he answered All things will be wellRecount the tale of Trump and Kim Jong UnBut first I asked What is the place in HellReserved I hear for Justin Trudeau's soulAnd what his punishment? I beg please tell To be continued when I find new inspiration I am currently interviewing muses

  5. Fergus Fergus says:

    Reading the Divine Comedy at seventeen was for me to see the world sub specie aeternitatis Apparently that’s not okay in the World’s eyes Writing it in the 14th Century was not considered okay either So Dante was banished for life from FlorenceIn the Comedy eternal flame is the just deserts of corrupt conformity That doesn’t seem uite right in the eyes of the comfortably politically correct back then as now And they like it or not always have the final say And what they say goes And Dante had to goSo reading this literary landmark for the first time when I was seventeen marked the inauguration of a colossal climacteric in my life The winds of change back then were howling all around me and as if in reaction Dante’s vertical landscapes ascending and descending morphed within my mind to become the central mythos of my world and my young spiritFor Dante’s work states clearly from his symbolic POV that we CAN find lasting happiness and security in spite of the majority’s comfortable perpetual nay saying to the contraryWhat we have to do to find it is pacify our dark impulses work out our emotional trauma with diligence and awareness and then aspire to reach the gates of Real and Lasting Happiness in the crown of our emotions and intellect Faith The faith that Dante has finally received from God when he reaches the summit of Purgatory is contained in its ultimate vision that of the Giant and the Whore being cast by the Gryphon into the Pit In our times the Giant is of course the controlling robotic Big Brother of us moderns and the Whore its eternally driving Desire The one feeds the otherAnd at the End of Time they are both cast into Hell by the mythical Gryphon the Avenging LordAnd so dawns the new Heaven and Earth inexorable and ultimately Victorious as Dante attains ParadiseThat sums it up Hell Purgation And Paradise And it all takes place right here on the face of this unforgiving planet Now here’s a key point that many have missed about the Comedia while it is easy to fall through the cracks of life into an Infernal Reality it’s next to impossible to maintain a decent attitude while falling The cthonic pull of the Inferno is just too intenseBut Dante did it So while enduring his cruel vision in the daily life of ruthlessly divided Florence he kept his rational cool throughoutIt speaks volumes of his character And it tells you EXACTLY the kind of virtue you need to get to HeavenIn the era of my first reading of it my grandmother had a beautifully bound edition of the Longfellow translation with its wonderful nouveau Gothic plates by Gustave Doré which I carried all around my parents’ house absorbed in its mystical milieuBy the next summer I had graduated to a library loan of the much less bulky sized John Ciardi translation in a limited edition with abstract modernistic illustrationsYou know one or another edition has been with me all throughout the intervening 50 years between then and now my literal ‘sine ua non’ Vade Mecum in all of its multiple shapes and sizesAt university it was the must own tiny Everyman Library dual language edition with its graceful Pre Raphaelite line drawings very easy to stick into my shirt pocket going to and from lecturesAnd do you know I recently realized that in all my many many readings of the poetic translations available I’ve never been able to fully grasp the subtle complexities of Dante’s AristotelianThomist philosophical arguments?So I picked up Charles Eliot Norton’s eminently accessible PROSE translation for my KindleSo as well as the print edition pictured above another excellent translation THAT is the story of my life in One BookAnd now that the end of of my life is approaching Sooner rather than Later or that’s the impression I now get I can look back at my life and the world I’ve lived in and agree with The Comedy’s author that as is inscribed in bold letters on the glorious facade of the old San Francisco Public Library“La gloria di colui che tutto movePer l’universo penetra e risplendeIn una parte piu e meno altrove”“The glory of The Prime Mover penetrates throughout the entire universe in one part less and another ”And He the Prime Mover Himself will guide us safely Home through the howling storms of this dark world if we’re alert to its dangersBut knowing the dangers how do we make that first step out of this City of Destruction and forever escape the maws of the ravenous Beasts that keep us from ascending out of its Dark Wood?The answer is simple It’s our own appetites that feed the power the beasts have over us So we first have to “make perfect our Will”So for me Dante’s words being lapidary meaning etched in stone were a portent as well as a promiseFor as we grow older we must keep always moving and ever watchful and contrite To avoid becoming like those who dare to dream drunkenly in the face of the Gorgon Death Turned Ourselves to StoneAnd SINKING into the DepthsCave lector

  6. Jeffrey Keeten Jeffrey Keeten says:

    ”THROUGH ME THE WAY INTO THE SUFFERING CITYTHROUGH ME THE WAY TO THE ETERNAL PAINTHROUGH ME THE WAY THAT RUNS AMONG THE LOSTJUSTICE URGED ON MY HIGH ARTIFICER;MY MAKER WAS DIVINE AUTHORITYTHE HIGHEST WISDOM AND THE PRIMAL LOVEBEFORE ME NOTHING BUT ETERNAL THINGSWERE MADE AND I ENDURE ETERNALLYABANDON EVERY HOPE WHO ENTER HERE” Botticelli’s vision of Satan There are 92 illustrations by Botticelli inspired by The Divine Comedy of which this edition contains a selectionI read Inferno while in college and had always intended to go back and read Purgatorio and Paradiso but somehow the years passed and I never returned to Dante’s masterpiece When my son went off to college and asked to borrow some classics to read I sent him along with my copy of The Divine Comedy Canterbury Tales Utopia Paradise Lost and several other important works of literature The rule with books of course is that there is no such thing as lending and returning The lending part goes fine but the returning is usually the tricky part When I decided it was time to return to Dante I didn’t ask for my copy back from my son though he would be one of the few people who would return a book I feel that giving a book to either of my children is an investment in all of our futuresSince I decided to descend into hell with Dante I was freuently glad to have Virgil as our guide He explained the explainable He provided a protective wing from the many monstrosities that we encounter ”Gross hailstones water gray with filth and snowCome streaking down across the shadowed air;The earth as it receives that shower stinksOver the souls of those submerged beneath That mess is an outlandish vicious beastHis three throats barking doglike CerberusHis eyes are bloodred; greasy black his beard;His belly bugles and his hands are claws;His talons tear and flay and rend the shades” As I was reading Dante’s descriptions of various horrendous beasts it reminded me of the fantastical medieval expressions of imagination that I’ve encountered numerous times in the margins of holy books These early monk illustrators displayed such a vivid creativity in how they depicted their fears I can only wonder how terrifying their nightmares were and for them to believe that these terrors were real would only add wings and claws to their trepidation They were infected with these fears by Christianity while being dangled the balm and possibility of heavenHow about this for a living nightmare? ”As I kept my eyes fixed upon those sinnersA serpent with six feet springs out against One of the three and clutches him completelyIt gripped his belly with its middle feetAnd with its forefeet grappled his two arms;And then it sank its teeth in both his cheeks;It stretched its rear feet out along his thighsAnd ran its tail along between the twoThen straightened it again behind his loinsNo ivy ever gripped a tree so fastAs when that horrifying monster clasped And intertwined the other’s limbs with itsThen just as if their substance were warm waxThey stuck together and they mixed their colorsSo neither seemed what he had been before”After seeing some of the horrors awaiting us in hell which has proved to be a much better scare tactic for considering improving my heavenly resume than Death on the Highway or Red Asphalt II were for improving my driving skills we encountered the pantheon of classical writers Homer Horace Ovid and Lucan Dante was so proud we will deal with pride in Purgatory that they accepted him as a member of their club I was starting to wonder if Dante may have already resigning himself to a life in hell Are great writers who don’t use their gifts glorifying God doomed to hell? One of the wonderful things about writing to paraphrase Chaucer is that you can eviscerate your enemies forever in print and certainly the people who had most offended Dante in life were experiencing the tortures of everlasting hell Writers do play God Because of the fame of The Divine Comedy their names will always be associated with a list of famous sinners I would say that Dante’s revenge was served cold but really it was rather warmly given We also meet some sinners who led pious lives worthy of heaven but because they were never baptised for the reason they lived before Christianity existed or fell under the catchall phrase ”did not worship God in fitting ways” and were all every one of them consigned to hell God does seem to be very particular about all of his children fearing him loving him above all else and most importantly of all worshipping him So it wasn’t about whether these people were good people but that they showed proper reverence to his worshipness Later when I visited heaven I didn’t see any issues with overcrowding so I’m not sure why a few get out of hell free cards couldn’t have been surreptitiously handed out to those bereft of sin who didn’t completely conform to his will How about even just a leg up to purgatory where eventually one might after thousands of years of suffering earn a pair of wings? It was with some relief my deodorant was starting to give way we ascended to Purgatory and confronted the seven terraced mountain representing the seven deadly sins For those in need of a recap there are the malicious uses of love such as wrath envy and pride and those where love is too strong such as lust gluttony and greed Sloth is the only sin not based on excesses but on a lack of enough self love or energy to be a contributing member of society As I weigh myself on these scales I can honestly say that sloth and greed have never been sins of mine Pride I will admit was a struggle when I was younger but life has a way of knocking the piss out of us and reminding us constantly that we are only half as smart as we think we are I’ve had a few wrathful moments in my life but being around human beings for too long will test the patience of the most sainted among us Lust I will plead the fifth and gluttony well food has never been an issue but one could make a case that I do suffer from a serious case of book gluttony I did check out some of the real estate pricing while in Purgatory sigh It was with some relief that we discovered some angels in purgatory bedraggled ones to be sure but still ones doing what we want angels to do which is protect us from marauding beasts ”I saw the company of noble spiritssilent and looking upward pale and humbleas if in expectation; and I sawemerging and descending from abovetwo angels bearing flaming swords of whichthe blades were broken off without their tips”Angels are badass warriors and there have been several television shows in recent years that has depicted them as soft and warm cuddle buddies but really angels aren’t for clinking beers with but for us to stand behind when winged fire spitting beasts are attempting to turn us into crispy critters Dante shared an epiphany with me while in Purgatory that left me thinking about the creation of dreams and how important it is for all of us to continue to build new dreams as we leap the final hurdles of achieving a dream or find that other dreams may no longer suit us ”A new thought arose inside of me and from that thought still others many and diverse were born I was so drawn from random thoughtto thought that wandering in mind I shutmy eyes transforming thought on thought to dream”Virgil was replaced as our guide by Beatrice as we were about three uarters of the way through Purgatory I was sorry to see Virgil go but I must admit I’ve always wanted to meet Beatrice just to see what type of woman would inspire such a lifetime of devotion from a man like Dante She was the daughter of a banker married a banker and with her premature death at 25 remained forever the very vision of beauty According to Dante he only met her twice but those sightings must have been magical because they left him with a permanent love hangover I wanted to ask Dante if he had ever even talked to the lass or if he just projected all of his visions of her from glimpses of her outer beauty but then the fact that she is here in Paradise may answer that uestion for me ”In ascent her eyes All beauty’s living seals gain force and notesthat I had not yet turned to them in Marscan then excuse me just as I accusemyself thus to excuse myself and seethat I speak truly here her holy beautyis not denied ascent makes it perfect”Heaven light as it turns out is even better than bar light We all look our best If you are considering reading Dante I would recommend for sure reading Inferno Most likely when you encounter Dante references appearing in your reading they will probably be from the Inferno This Allen Mandelbaum translation is wonderful and so easy to read and there are copious notes in the back to help guide you if Virgil loses you in a flaming forest This is one of the classic works which I have felt for some time I’ve needed to read There will be many this year including but not limited to War and Peace Magic Mountain and Les Miserables If a bit of flayed skin flies out from between the pages once in a while don’t be afraid; it’s just part of the adventure A word of caution though be sure to buy some SPF1000 before you take this scenic walk with Dante If you wish to see of my most recent book and movie reviews visit also have a Facebook blogger page at

  7. Kalliope Kalliope says:

    THE DARING somewhat COMIC and also DIVINE INVENTIOIt is very difficult not to be lured by the highly intelligent craft of Durante degli Aliguieri DA And may be it is not a coincidence that he was the exact contemporary of Giotto his fellow Florentine For if Giotto planted the seed for a pictorial representation of the world in which man at the center and through a window delivers to us a naturalistic depiction of divine stories Dante also used his writing to posit himself as the Author who through his fictional persona or Alter Ego gives us the viewpoint to contemplate the full cosmos His cosmos but for us to shareStill we modern readers in spite of Modernist and PostModernist awareness are still fooled by DA’s handling of illusion and easily become pilgrims and start on a literary trip than ready to absorb everything that DA wants us to see and think and believePOLITICSSo for example we will learn his political views DA was exiled in 1301 and led a peripatetic life outside Florence until his death in 1321 He wrote the Commedia during the exile from 1309 and finished it in time By masterfully welding the fact and mythologized fiction of the world of Antiuity he cloths himself with the full robes of Auctoritas and presents us the complex development of European politics during the thirteenth century He summons his views repeatedly either by the succession of visits to the traitors or in fully developed historical pageantsOf course Hell is populated by DA’s enemies with the very pope responsible for his exile Boniface VIII holding stardom in Circle 8th In this Inferno DA is the very Minos He is the one who with his pen of many tails wraps around his enemies and throws them down the pit to the Circle that DA believes the chosen sinners deserve Even if this spectacle horrifies his ingenuous PilgrimThe ranking of the Inferno Circles reflect also DA’s values Lust is the least damaging while Treason in particular political treason and the betrayal of friends is the most despicable In comparison even Lucifer a rendition that remains faithful to the medieval tradition is not much than a grotesue and not particularly hateful monster Politics continue in Purgatory DA’s audacity is again proved by the way he exploits to its fullest what was still a relatively new concept in Christian dogma 1274 If DA had been Minos in Inferno he now is the discerning Cato of Purgatory He is the one holding the Silver and Gold keys and who claims to know the very intimate thought of those who had the luck to repent the instance just before dying He awards then the transit ticket to Paradise Can we be surprised if some of the awardees had some relation to those figures who had welcomed DA during his exile? DA’s authorial knowledge is supplemented by the granting his protagonist with the role of Messenger of Hope The Pilgrim as the only human in Purgatory can bid for prayers to the still living relatives when he goes back to Earth He can effect a change in the duration that any purging sinner is to spend in the transitional stage the only one of the three realms in which the clock is tickingCould one expect DA to finally drop the political discourse in Heaven? No of course not There it even acuires greater strength since the discourse is cloaked with a divine mantle In Paradiso it will be no other than Saint Peter himself who will denounce the path of degeneration that the Papacy had taken in recent years And if Boniface VIII died in 1303 had been repeatedly identified as the culprit for the evil in earth now it is his succeeding popes and contemporary to the writing of Commedia who are selected by DA’s saintly mouthpiece Pope Clement V was responsible for the transfer of the papacy to Avignon and the cupidity of John XXII was for everyone to see Indeed a secluded Apocalyptical 666 attests that politics forms a triptych in Commedia In agreement with the intricate framework of parallels symmetries and balances in this work DA devoted the three chapters 6 in each book to political diatribesApart from his relying on Ancient Auctoritas DA also accorded the full weight of history to his views and it is mostly in a couple of major pageants and in the Valley of the Kings that he exposes the political disaster that the withdrawal from the Italian peninsula by the Empire had on the various city states It was left to the corrupt papacy and to the corrupt smaller kingdoms to spread crime along the full Europe His solution was clear The papacy had to govern only religious matters and he extolled the Emperor Henry VII to hold the political reins of Europe It is DA’s canonized Beatrice who has a reserved seat for this Emperor in God’s White Flower if he does succeed in exerting his salvific political roleDOGMABut the Commedia is not just about politics This extremely complex work is also soaking in Christian Dogma Of course politics and dogma were inextricably joined during the Middle Ages and that was part of DA’s very complaint And what is to me extraordinary about the immediate reception of Commedia is that it was treated like Scripture Even the early editions were illustrated like illuminated manuscripts—which in a way is most befitting if we remember that it is about the progress of a Pilgrim’s as he approaches Light and gains a 2020 vision elevated tho the Trinitarian powerIn his appeal to religious dogma DA was extraordinarily successful even if some of his claims were shockingly daring He modified or added realms to the Christian Cosmos with the peculiar understanding of the Limbo to accommodate revered figures from Ancient Antiuity or added the Pre Purgatory for the unabsolved Rulers He designed his own ranking of the Sins both for Hell and Purgatory But most importantly he proposed his understanding of Free Will and its conflicting relationship to Predetermination and God’s vision Not by chance did he place the discussion of Free Will at the very center of the work in Canto 16 of PurgatoryBut the most dangerous proposition for him was his vehement defense of the limitations of the Papacy on Earth He started writing in 1307 just a few years after the Papal Bull of Unam Sanctam the very controversial claim of papal infallibility Not this book but Dante’s Monarchia in which he strongly attacked official tenet was burned soon after Dante’s death and was included in the list of forbidden books during the 16th centuryNARRATIVE SCHEMESTo us however it is not his proclamations on Dogma and not even his political views except for historians which offer the greatest interest What is most remarkable for literature addicts is how DA the author develops all these themes and succeeds in weighing with the gravest authority his poetic treatise And this he does through his masterful manipulation of the power of fiction and the sophisticated uses of voicesFor a start there is the protagonist DA’s Alter Ego and the only human in the full work His humanity and his being in the middle of the moral mess in which he has placed himself is the perfect mirror for the reader But we can trust him to embody us because Virgil the greatest Roman poet and chronologist of the foundation of Rome will guide us We can trust him also because Christian Divinity has selected him as the temporary guide It is only when Virgil’s powers have reached his limits two thirds into the full work that the pilgrim’s identity is revealed to us He is Dante himself or Dante the Pilgrim DP With his revealed identity he can say goodbye to the pagan guide who cannot alas have a place in Heaven Dante however willThe spoiler provided by our general culture has damaged the way we read the work The astounding pretention of DA in assigning himself the powers in deciding who goes where in his system of divine retributions has been blurred to some naive readers Some of them try to excuse Dante precisely because they have been entirely convinced by his acting puppet The highly successful Dante the Pilgrim DP as a candid personality with the ualities of kindness fear anger and similar emotions distracts our attention away from the real Dante the AuthorThe Pilgrim is an alibi mechanism for his creator He shows pity for the people DA condemns He can go beyond the Terrace of Pride in which the rather proud DA may be still spending some of his time And he becomes the anointed messenger from the Heavens to deliver to us what DA is writing But we would also be mistaken if we did not recognized that not always him but many other characters voice DA’s opinion His brilliant dramatization with innumerable personages constitutes the choir of a ventrilouist In the sophisticated Narrative techniue the handling of time is also magisterial Apart from the symbolic unfolding of the action during Holy Week of the year 1300 and the references to eternal cosmic time it is the numerous voices of this clever ventrilouist who continually foretell what is to happen to the sinners Most outstandingly the voices predict the eternal condemnation of DA’s particular enemies Some of these were not yet dead at the time of the pilgrimage but had already passed away when DA was writing his poem Such an example is the premonition that the most hated pope Boniface VIII will be damned He died three years later But there is also the shocking case of the soul that is already in penance while his body is still living on earth This personality died even after DanteFinally it is DP himself once he has entered Heaven who engages in this foretelling and of course it had to be in his warning to the Popes that were about to be in power in the years after the voyage of the Commedia reminding them to stay out of politics and to forget material wealthThe suitability of DP as our Alter egos to reach salvation is certified by his examinations on the Theological Virtues by the the Apostles Peter James and John He passes them with flying colors because DP acknowledges that his knowledge is based on the Holy TextAnd it is also with Text and DA was very well versed in exploiting its four levels of interpretation Literal allegorical moral and anagogical that is with this new poetry that Dante Aliguieri is proposing a plan for his and our salvation Because after such a heavenly Graduation who can deny the Commedia its status as Prophetic and Scriptural? May be we saw it coming when the still anonymous Pilgrim posited himself at the very beginning of the poem as the 6th greatest poet after the likes of Homer Ovid Virgil etc So may be it is not by chance that his identity as Dante is revealed until Virgil is used and expensedSeveral other poets also populate the triptychal poem representatives of the two pioneering schools of Provençal and Sicilian schools as well as by those Florentines who with or just before DA started formulating the sweet new style dolce still novo and exploring the literary possibilities of the still vernacular Tuscan tongue But if DA has been exploiting his abilities as ventrilouist it is with his own voice as a poet that he makes a presence in Commedia A few of his fictional characters uote some of Dante’s earlier versesHaving reached the Empirium of the poem we can stop and think about where Dante Alighieri has taken us Because even if not eternal salvation he has delivered us a most extraordinary feat of literature that we cannot but ualify as divine Further he has done so in a newly coined language to which he added some words of his own invention and most outstanding of all he positioned the Author at the very center of that literary White Rose of fictionAnd this flower continued to exude its rich scent until in a similar process to the displacement of Giotto’s viewer Roland Barthes plucked it in the declaration formulated in his 1967 Essay The Death of the AuthorBut before that it had a long life

  8. Darwin8u Darwin8u says:

    Plumbing the crucible of happenstanceI should give a uick intro and say that I rarely EVER EVER re read a book I should also mention that 3 years ago I had never cracked Dante's Divine Comedy Now I am finishing the Divine Comedy for the 3rd time I've read Pinsky's translation of the Inferno I've read Ciardi I've flirted with Mandelbaum and danced with Hollander but from Canto 1 of InfernoHell to Canto XXXIII of ParadisoHeaven I can't say I've read a better version than the Clive James translation He replaced the terza rima A B A B C B C D C D E D E E a measure hard to write without poetic stretch marks in English with the uatrain and in doing so made the English translation his own It gives the Divine Comedy the verbal energy and the poetry that makes inferior translations a slog and makes Dante so damn difficult to translate well A mediocre translation might capture the stripes but lose the tiger Clive James pulled off a master translation of one of the greatest works of art in any medium ever

  9. MJ Nicholls MJ Nicholls says:

    I propose an extra level in the Inferno for procrastinators and abandoners I was planning to write a novel where three protagonists commit suicide and end up in Scottish Hell Since overcrowding has plagued the old Scottish Hell H the protagonists are forced to ueue up for weeks on end before arriving at the building for processing Upon their arrival their sins are assessed by an administrator to determine which circle of Hell is appropriate for them But due to cutbacks and financial instabilities the three suicides are deemed unfit for service in Hell and are returned to their bodies Back on Earth the three characters return to their miserable lives which they want to leave immediately But before they commit suicide again they have to break free from their mousy personalities and commit sins grievous enough to secure them a decent place in Hell As the characters commit petty thefts and minor infelicities the sin reuirements to Hell become tougher and tougher and they are repeatedly returned to their bodies They spend their lives building up to larger and larger sins constantly being returned to their bodies as the world around them becomes increasingly depraved and violent When they die because the notion of “sin” has been completely reclassified to mean the most vile sickest violations they are secured a place Heaven for their relatively minor embezzlements murders and rapes I started this book but lost impetus halfway through I was convinced this idea was derivative of other works the Hell as bureaucracy has certainly popped up in British satire and lost heart I also lost heart halfway through the Inferno section of this despite the translation being very fluent and readable So I am going to the tenth circle for the procrastinating bolter I did read the graphic novel version partial redemption?

  10. Liz Janet Liz Janet says:

    “Through me you pass into the city of woeThrough me you pass into eternal painThrough me among the people lost for ayeJustice the founder of my fabric movedTo rear me was the task of power divineSupremest wisdom and primeval loveBefore me things create were none save thingsEternal and eternal I shall endureAll hope abandon ye who enter here” There is no much one can say about this marvelous poem that has not been said before One of the greatest epic poems to have been written ever The book is divided into three books Inferno meaning hell; Purgatorio meaning purgatory; and Paradiso meaning heaven My favourite has always been Inferno but Paradiso is highly underrated as underrated as this brilliant work can possibly be “The man who lies asleep will never waken fame and his desire and all his life drift past him like a dream and the traces of his memory fade from time like smoke in air or ripples on a stream” This is a basic view of the world as Dante knew it back in the 14th century a human’s soul journey through hell purgatory and heavenThis poem mixes religion and science everything from the most basic Christian Dogma to early Islamic astronomy with a lot of his political views mixed in At the time this work was being written Dante was living in exile he uses this work as a way to show his enemies and what he thought not only of figures of his time but of historical figures in general including Plato Aesop Alejandro Magno Mary as well as legendary people such as Abel Diana and Isaac If one does not wish to read this simply because it is a long poem read it for the historical view so many interesting characters for history buffs My favourite thing perhaps was how he used his work to slam the people that harmed him including Pope Boniface VIII the man who exiled him Basically apart from this being a religious work and a historical work it is a big “F you” to everyone he disagreed with him or harmed him in any way those parts were hilarious to me I have a horrible sense of humour Basically read this poem there is Satan angels the circles of hell philosophers in Tartarus a reference to the Muslim conuest as “Dragon” “the bird of Jove” attacking a church a bunch of symbolism for “Reason” unnecessary invocation of the Muses Tristan and Isolde many interesting murderers and a bunch of other cool stuff

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