Prince Henry 'the Navigator' A Life MOBI ´ Henry 'the

Prince Henry 'the Navigator' A Life [Reading] ➶ Prince Henry 'the Navigator' A Life By Peter E. Russell – Henry the Navigator fifteenth century Portuguese prince and explorer is a legendary almost mythical figure in late medieval history Considered along with Columbus to be one of the progenitors of moder 'the Navigator' PDF/EPUB å Henry the Navigator fifteenth century Portuguese prince and explorer is a legendary almost mythical figure in late medieval history Considered along with Columbus to be one of the Prince Henry ePUB ´ progenitors of modernity Prince Henry challenged the scientific assumptions of his age and was responsible for liberating Europeans from geographical restraints that had bound them since the Roman Empire’s Henry 'the Navigator' eBook ↠ collapse In this enthralling account of Henry’s life—the first biography of “The Navigator” in than a century—Peter Russell reaps the harvest of a lifelong study of Prince Henry Making full use of documentary evidence only recently available Russell reevaluates Henry and his role in Portuguese and European historyExamining the full range of Prince Henry’s activities Russell discusses the explorer’s image as an imperialist and as a maritime mathematical and navigational pioneer He considers Henry’s voyages of discovery in the African Atlantic their economic and cultural conseuences and the difficult uestions they generated regarding international law and papal jurisdiction Russell demonstrates the degree to which Henry was motivated by the predictions of his astrologer—an aspect of his career little known until now—and explains how this innovator though firmly rooted in medieval ways of thinking and behaving set in motion a current of change that altered European history.

About the Author: Peter E. Russell

'the Navigator' PDF/EPUB å Sir Peter Russell who has died aged was the most influential th century English speaking scholar of Iberian letters As King Alfonso XIII professor of Spanish and Prince Henry ePUB ´ director of Portuguese studies at Oxford for nearly three decades in his published work he time and again challenged received wisdom while using an intimate knowledge of his university Henry 'the Navigator' eBook ↠ and a worldwide network of friendships to.

10 thoughts on “Prince Henry 'the Navigator' A Life

  1. Leonard Leonard says:

    For modern students Prince Henry’s patronage of Portugal’s oversees exploration during the 15th century was an essential starting point for Europe’s mercantalistic empires during the Early Modern Period Nonetheless Prince Henry in the minds of his charitable chroniclers was also considered a pious crusader who strove zealously to spread Christianity to pagan lands This duel identity has been the subject for serious debate among historians uestions remain whether Prince Henry was motivated purely by his zealous religious beliefs or was merely guided by his lust for individual material wealth and political power While some truth can be extrapolated from the panegyric biographies written in his name recent studies have begun to chip away at the Prince’s gilded historical image and have provided an ever improving balanced understanding of the true identity of the man Of these recent critical studies Peter Russell’s book Prince Henry ‘the Navigator’ A Life has been the most successful Russell provides his audience with compelling revisionist analysis of Prince Henry which deftly lays to waste to Henrican myths and Illuminates the complex belief systems and personal motives that influenced Portuguese historical events during 15th century With analytical skill Russell deals with Prince Henry’s illusive past by highlighting some key events that would influence his future endeavors In his attempt to thoughtfully understand the true influences on Prince Henry’s future decision making Russell leaves no stone unturned Prince Henry’s destiny according to Russell was already in place when he was born Russell throughout his book criticizes Prince Henry’s chronicler Gomes Eanes de Zahura for his panegyrical depiction of the Prince Interesting enough however Russell agrees with Zahura’s assumption that astrology played a significant role in his subject and employer’s life As Zahura states Prince Henry was destined from birth for “great noble conuests and to the uncovering of secrets previously hidden to man” Russell 15 Russell argues that while many of Prince Henry’s contemporary historical accounts do not mention this astrological destiny it is still important to understand that the Prince was the product of his own times During the 15th century astrological predictions were an important and accepted source of scientific information Russell argues that it is necessary to understand that Prince Henry was well aware of this supposedly predictive information and undoubtedly influenced the manner in which he approached his future political tasks Russell 15 As Russell correctly illustrates throughout his book Prince Henry’s seemingly contradictory actions also have to be understood within the political structure of 15th century Europe which was still influenced by chivalric and crusading ideologies Russell broadly argues that both the pursuit of Prince Henry’s own individual political power and the collective power of the Portuguese state made crusading against North African Islamic civilizations an attractive geopolitical policy Russell 16 This can be understood when examining the political and economic conditions that contributed to Prince Henry’s decision to participate in crusading endeavors Portugal’s domestic economic conditions influenced Prince Henry’s decisions As Russell explains John I Portugal’s king and Prince Henry’s father wanted to ensure that his five sons had appropriate lands for their royal status Unfortunately it was an unlikely given Portugal’s geographic and economic conditions that this was going to happen While Prince Henry was lucky at young age to gain access to a new lordship in Viseu by 1411 the perceived economic and political weakness of Portugal in comparison to larger lordships in Europe would motivate Portuguese Princes like Henry to further pursue wealth and political legitimacy in various ways Russell 27 Thus Prince Henry’s motivation to participate or least support oversees exploration crusades against Islam and the Portuguese involvement in the African slave trade during has to be understood within the complex political and economic structure of Europe during the 15th century; something that Russell expertly examines throughout his historical narrative Following this stream of thought Russell believes that modern historians have improperly believed in the notion that Prince Henry placed personal importance on his support of oversees trade than his standard crusading pursuits Russell counters this false assumption by claiming that chivalric and courageous battles like the Ceuta invasion in 1415 carried far influence in the hearts and minds of not only Prince Henry but that of the Portuguese court as well Russell 51 This fact can be easily understood if as Russell argues modern historians view Prince Henry as product of his own times; a man dictated by the motivation to secure personal and national political power through chivalric battles against infidels This has been difficult for modern historians to admit completely One of historical myths that Russell works to destroy is the rather recent attempt by modern historians to eliminate Portugal’s crusading ideology as an explanation for the attack on Ceuta; instead attributing Portugal’s military Endeavour as an attempt to garner “respectable economic and strategic” advantage Russell 35 As Russell amazingly explains only a few commanders among the largest fleet ever assembled by the Portuguese monarchy knew of the destination of this military force Ceuta Russell 29 Most within the Portuguese court were aware that a military maneuver was being prepared but it was assumed that the large fleet was going to be used in an attack against Sicily Russell 34 Russell makes a compelling argument that the mere fact that the Portuguese officials up until the initiation of the attack could not predict that the Ceuta was the target proves that Ceuta lacked the obvious strategic and economic advantages In actuality Prince Henry’s support for the Ceuta invasion was as Russell argues to put Portugal “firmly on the map of European powers to be reckoned with” by successfully capturing a Muslim city Russell 41 Rather than focusing on tangible strategic and economic advantage Prince Henry believed that the Ceuta invasion could provide Portugal with much needed geopolitical prestige amongst other European kingdoms While certainly the success of Ceuta had a great influence on Portugal it had an extraordinary effect on Prince Henry’s future decision making and also proved to predict his weakness in military leadership Russell argues that the invasion of Ceuta cemented Prince Henry as crusader against Islam and that from then on; his future endeavors had to be shaped within the conflict between Islam and Christianity Russell 58 While this is certainly true Russell argues that something else can be gleaned from Prince Henry’s participation in the Ceuta invasion Additionally as Russell claims Prince Henry’s imprudently zealous behavior during the invasion of Ceuta predicted his failure in leadership during the Tangier invasion in 1437 Russell correctly assumes that Prince Henry believed that “religious zealotry counted for than careful strategic and tactical planning and attention to military discipline” Russell 50 Prince Henry’s contemporaries were also weary of Prince Henry’s impudent zealotry Russell researches polemics created by oppositional forces within the Portuguese court that stood against the invasion of Tangiers While it would seem that Prince Henry’s zealous behavior completely dominated the Portuguese approach towards the invasion these documents show that some within the court uestioned the prudence of such a crusading endeavor Russell provides the audience with the development of an alternative realist attitude towards Portugal’s policies that would later define its soft imperial ambitions Nonetheless the opposition even with its realist arguments could not dull Prince Henry’s urge to pursue a valiant and chivalric military action that if successful gain himself and Portugal recognition throughout Europe The Prince and his brother D Fernando were put in charge of the doomed expedition Russell provides the most damning criticism of why the invasion failed “All the Portuguese assaults on the wall of Tangier failed for reasons thatprobably had nothing to do with the courage of the attackers but all to do with the lack of proper euipment for the task in hand a deficiency caused by an obvious failure to secure full information about Tangiers fortifications” 179Prince Henry in this devastatingly ironic military blunder was forced to hand over his prized political possession Ceuta To ensure the victors his promise to hand the city over he offered up his brother D Fernando for ransom Later when it came into uestion the status of his brother possession by the enemy Prince Henry spread egregious rumors that Fernando was ready for martyrdom 192 Fernando was later killed by his captors The failed Tangier’s invasion represents the lowest point in Prince Henry’s career However the zealous Prince was than able to recover partly because of his brother’s fabricated martyrdom For some historians it is difficult to admit that Prince Henry’s patronage of oversees voyages off the west coast of Africa was most importantly the conseuence of crusading policies against Islam Prince Henry’s seemingly contradictory balance between obtaining material wealth through trade while all the while promoting non materialist Christian belief systems might seem like an illogical contradiction Russell deals effectively with this issue throughout the book Russell explains “The historical Prince in so far as we can get near him was plainly a far interesting if also far perplexing figure than the uncomplicated culture hero of the mythmakers” Russell 3 Prince Henry’s crusading motive can be easily seen in his desire to make a military alliance with the mythological Prestor John According to Russell Prestor John largely because of the Ottoman Empires threats on Christian Europe was portrayed as being a powerful Christian Lord with a large army ready to strike at Islamic enemies Prince Henry who now had ships raiding throughout the Atlantic Ocean could uite conceivably make contact with such a civilization and push the Muslim threat out of Europe The idea of Portugal being involved in such a glorious crusade was too much for Prince Henry to ignore Prince Henry’s awkward balance between Christian morality and personal political motives can additionally be seen in his involvement in the Portuguese slave trade Russell’s description of Prince Henry’s involvement in the Portuguese slave trade is a fascinating analysis of how a man guided by complicated desires for both piety and material wealth can justify the enslavement of human beings Prince Henry with very little thought otherwise claims that the Africans captured by the Prince’s “explorers” were only brought back to Christianized As Russell explains Prince Henry believed that “any ‘inconveniences’ the converted slave might have to endure in this life were nothing when compared with the certainty of eternal salvation that conversion brings with it” Russell 244 Christian zealotry only seems to bolster Prince Henry’s attempts at garnering material wealth not in the form of gold but in the form of slaves Russell explains that in many cases throughout his life Prince Henry was a political realist who departed or embraced his complex ideologies when it was necessary In this Russell’s analysis of Prince Henry properly characterizes him as being a product of the political structure of 15th century Europe Nonetheless Prince Henry’s own zealous behavior and his ability to garner support within the Portuguese court for crusading policies beyond the Iberian peninsula would have a significant effect not only on Portugal but on the world as a whole Peter Russell’s revisionist masterpiece Prince Henry ‘the Navigator’ A Life is an important contribution to not only the historical literature of Portugal but to the newly developing fields of Atlantic and world historyRussell’s ability to frame Prince Henry’s life within the broad context of Portugal’s developing trade empire without veering too far from his purported subject provides his modern audience with both a broad understanding of Prince Henry and the historical circumstances that he was a product of As Russell clearly Prince Henry was also involved in diverting European history

  2. Helena R-D Helena R-D says:

    I wanted to like this book because I liked Henry as a historical figureWhat I found was a plodding book filled with flowery passages that didn't tell the story of him in what could have been done at a much rapid pace I'm glad I read it but it's not a book I would pick up to enjoy ever again

  3. Czarny Pies Czarny Pies says:

    This a superb biography of the intiator Europe's Age of Discovery Anyone wishing to learn the story of why Prince Henry decided to promote Portuguese exploration will be amply satisfied by this account which gives a full description of the trips of exploration that he commissioned as well as his vigorous promotion of Portuguese colonization of Madeira and the AzoresPeter Russell portrays Henry as a person standing third in line to the throne behind two older brothers and thus forced to make a place for himself in the world as none will be given to him Military adventure was what he tried first He persuaded his father to allow him to lead a successful conuest of the North African city of Ceuta when he was only 20 He would later lead a disastrous attack on Tangier in which his younger brother would be taken prisonerHenry would wind up devoting most of his life to promoting exploration training in navigation and building a fleet of caravels for international commerce As his older brother inherited the throne Prince Henry chose not to marry because he would have no kingdom to beueath to his heir He did however leave a tremendous legacy to Europe through his work to promote to the expansion of European trade and political hegemony

  4. Jeanne Jeanne says:

    More than anyone needs to know about Prince Henry however it’s an excellent book

  5. Ed Ed says:

    Very good highly detailed wrll researched

  6. David Silva David Silva says:

    A wonderfully well produced book A very clear and easy to grasp tour through the navigators life and achievements The section in the middle with my color photos is an added treat This time frame is Portuguese history interest me very much because I am able to trace my ancestry back to the founding of the Azores islands in the mid 15th century This book is a great lead in to that period of history

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